Future Insight

Exploring Technologies

The application of additional energy efficiency technologies to reduce energy demand is essential in combination with the use of alternative fuels to achieve the net-zero ambition. ​This section provides information on individual technologies.​


Technological Readiness


WTP Clean Energy Technology Guide (IEA) provides information on the level of maturity, a compilation

of development and deployment plans, cost and performance improvement targets, and leading players in the field.


FAQs on Technology


FAQs of zero or near-zero GHG emissions technologies. To learn more, please visit ZESTAs website.

Wind Propulsion

Wind propulsion assistance technologies have been considered in this paper as energy-saving technologies to reduce the demand of using fuel for propulsion. The use of renewable wind energy for ship propulsion – using sails – is an ancient technology, but its application to modern commercial vessels is novel.


Electrification enables energy-efficient and quiet propulsion. However, the investment case currently works only for specific ship operational profiles due to the low energy density and charging time requirements. ​

Fuel Cell

Fuel cell technology has been around a long time but has only recently become commercialized in the transport sector for road vehicles and for stationary power generation. In a fuel cell, electricity is produced by the oxidation of hydrogen with the emission of water vapour.